Understanding the basics of human psychology is incredibly fascinating and can shed a lot of light on why we do some of the things we do. What it can also do though is to help us to avoid accidents and to get more from ourselves, which is why it’s a useful area for study for everyone from CEOs to health and safety inspectors.
Of particular interest when it comes to health and safety is why people can sometimes be so oblivious to clear hazards and problems. Why do people walk out into the middle of the road? Why do they fall down man-holes? Does no one ever look where they’re going? Here we will look at why the human brain is fallible in the way and what you can do about it if you work in a relevant field.
What you have to remember about the human brain is that it takes in a huge amount of information on a daily basis. If you look up from this article right now then you will be greeted by an almost infinite amount of information – from the people moving around outside to the speck of dust on the wall to the faint sound of a tap dripping and cars going past the window. There’s no way that your brain can take all this information in and save it as you walk around outside, so all it can afford to do is to show us the things that it deems most relevant. As the human brain evolved in the wild out on the African planes though, these elements will not be things like manholes or glass left on the floor – they’ll often be things that have less bearing on our day to day lives these days.
One example of something our brain will bring to our attention is movement. If you are walking down the street and something suddenly starts moving in your peripheral vision then you will be likely to notice that movement as it could potentially signal danger. Likewise our brains tend to be drawn to particularly vibrant colours that seem out of place in their surrounds – like reds, yellows and oranges (which is why if you see traffic cones for sale they’ll tend to be in these colours). These colours might have once signalled fire, snake or tiger and so today our head turns in that direction.
This can be used to our advantage such in the case as flashing signs and other hazard indicators, but sometimes it can work against us – such as when we get distracted by something moving in the distance and so hurt ourselves.
Another thing we will often look at is human faces and studies show that from a young age we start to pay more attention to faces than other stimuli. This is probably because faces signal potential competition/attackers or mates. This is also the reason that a lot of advertising includes images of people in it – which is also a problem sometimes when it comes health and safety.
Kevin Taylor is an auto blogger and is passionate about cars. In one of his recent posts he has talked about the safety measures one needs to take while driving a car.
Photo Credit: image source
Human beings are able to establish homes in some of the most remote and inhospitable places on earth. From the frozen tundras of the far north to the dense and dangerous forests of the tropics, to ice floes in Antarctica, people have been venturing into unlikely places and laying down roots for thousands of years. Some live in treetops, others in mountains high above the tree line, and some even live underground.
These are the three largest underground communities on (or perhaps it’s more accurate to say in) Earth:
Coober Pedy is the largest underground community in the world, and the only underground community populous enough to call itself a town. Dug into the barren landscape of South Australia, one of the driest regions on earth, Coober Pedy is home to one of the biggest opal deposits ever discovered. When early settlers first began mining the precious gemstones back in the 1970s, they found the summertime heat unbearable, and began digging their homes into the nearby hillside for relief from the sun. Now––with summertime temperatures topping 40 degrees Celsius––their unique underground town stays a comfortable 24 degrees all year round. Since the area became a popular tourist destination in the 1980s, it has continued to expand, and now features a number of unique underground churches and hotels.
Photo Credit: expom2uk
Photo Credit: Rob & Jules
Photo Credit: Paleontour
In the Mojave Desert outside Barstow––not far from Los Angeles, California––a luxury underground community development has just been completed. This 135-person bomb shelter/disaster bunker was originally built by AT&T in 1965, to protect local telecom networks from the threat of nuclear attack. But a recent overhaul has successfully transformed the shelter into a surprisingly elegant, albeit compact, living space, which the builder compares to cruise ship accommodations. For 100 square feet of subterranean real estate, prospective residents will have to invest $50,000 per person.
There is currently a 5000-person applicant list, which is being vetted to determine which 135 are best suited for the community—the goal being to have a well-balanced population of technical workers, scientists, doctors, and maintenance workers. Terra Vivos also features a detention centre for unruly residents, an air filtration system for handling chemical attacks, bomb doors capable of withstanding a direct tank blast, and a frozen DNA bank for reseeding the war-ravaged Earth. Now, the only thing needed to make it complete is World War 3 and/or the Zombie Apocalypse.
Not far from luxurious and comfortable Terra Vivos, the Las Vegas Strip forms the ceiling of an entirely different kind of underground community. There are more than 350 miles of flood channels beneath the historically hot and dry Sin City. And Las Vegas is also historically a catch-pool for people who are down on luck. With couches, compact kitchens, beds, bookshelves, makeshift showers, and elaborate permanent living quarters, the storm drains beneath The Strip are home to more than 700 temporary and long-term residents, most of whom make their living as “credit hustlers,” who prowl the slot machine sections of casinos looking for machines with unused credits left by drunken gamblers. The risks of living down here involve disease, deadly Black Widow spiders, and the occasional flood, but residents (many of whom were driven into the drains by gambling or drug addictions) claim it is a close-knit community where people help one another.
From luxurious and superfluous to squalid last resort, underground communities can take many forms. And while most unconventional dwellings involve sacrificing amenities most of us take for granted, living underground means abandoning one of the most basic natural resources of all: sunlight. So it is no wonder all these communities are in deserts, where sunlight occurs in considerable surplus. In any case, the rarity of underground communities like these is a testament to the difficulty of making a home away from the sun.
Contributed by the folks at Policy Expert home insurance.
We can see more and more homeless people nowadays. The core reasons for this situation is a problem with not enough affordable rental housing and increasing poverty. Declining wages has significant impact too. Because renting a housing costs more than a minimal wage, it is a big problem for many workers. There are other factors that has impact on, including age, gender or ethnicity. Based on statistics, children under the age of 18, were responsible for 39% of the homeless population. Veterans are common category too, 40% of homeless men have served in the armed forces. Even the statistics shows some prevalence for homelessness in some areas, it can have impact on anybody in any situation.
There is no doubt that Photoshop can create images that you do not see in real world. But what happen when you combine an creative artist, satire, irony and a famous people pictures with Photoshop.
The following images are from a artist called azrainman alias Arizona Rainman. I think that the images are self-explanatory and have no intension to dishonest someone.
Satire is “a literary manner which blends a critical attitude with humor and wit to the end that human institutions or humanity may be improved. The true satirist is conscious of the frailty of institutions of man’s devising and attempts through laughter not so much to tear them down as to inspire a remodeling” (Thrall, et al 436).
Mrs. Ronald McDonald
Arnold Terminator Schwarzenegger
Bones TV Series
People often associate long exposures with night photography. What is overlooked are the amazing photos you can get with longer shutter speeds, ranging from 1/15 of a second up to many hours. What’s more, these aren’t tricky, and don’t require sophisticated cameras and lenses. Because of the techniques associated with shooting at varying lengths of shutter speeds, I break them down into three categories: Shorter exposures, which go from about 1/20th of a second to several seconds, medium exposures, which go up to about a minute, and long exposures, which can be indefinitely long.
Shorter Length Exposures
“Shorter” versions of extended exposures are those where you typically want to capture motion blur of an object or action. You may either be shooting from a moving object, or you may be in a stationary position taking a picture of a moving object. What each of these cases have in common is the fact that they take place during the day. This means you have a lot of light available, and when there’s a lot of light, your camera’s shutter speed tends to be pretty fast. One way to slow down the shutter speed while maintaining the overall exposure balance is to use a very small aperture, also called “stopping down.” The smaller the hole, the less the light, the longer the shutter speed to get the light.
Technically, this isn’t rocket science. The challenge is the composition. Because things are in motion, it’s hard to frame your picture in real-time conditions that change so quickly, and deciding when to release the shutter. Expect to shoot many pictures of the same thing, hoping that one great shot will appear. One hint about composition is to pay attention to the direction of motion, since that will be the theme of the picture. Straight lines, curved motion, forward, backward. It’s all about leading the viewer’s eye from a starting point to an endpoint. It may be subtly implied, or very direct, but it’s the motion itself that you want to convey.
When shooting from a stationery position, something else in the scene must also be stationary, or the effect is lost. Hence, it is necessary to keep the lens stable during the exposure to keep those stationary objects still. For 1/8 of a second or so, one “can”, with enough practice, learn to be relatively still, but even then, it still requires repeated shooting. If you’re on a train, for example, you can use a tripod.
Moving clouds are also excellent subjects for extended exposures. For example, this photo of Mount Veronica, Peru, shows how clouds appear when they move over mountains. Shooting just about any night scene with moving clouds can produce interesting effects, but be careful not to expose for too long. Given enough time, the whites of the clouds will eventually pass by all the open spaces in the sky (even if it’s never entirely overcast), losing the “swoosh” effect.
Medium Length Exposures
Medium length exposures include those up to a minute or so, and are therefore the most common type of long-exposure work. The only thing required is a tripod or other sturdy object. Dusk, dawn and many nite scenes in cities (or traffic) are excellent candidates for these types images, because there is ambient light to fill in the shadows, which balance out the highlights.
As these photos illustrate, streaking lights from cars show a sense of motion, and are immediately appealing. The longer the exposure, the longer the car headlights streak. There are many ways you can play with this effect, and as you get more familiar with the process, you can experiment with the timing; when you start and stop such exposures has a great impact on the final result.
For example, consider the pair of images of the stopped bus. Both were exposed the same amount of time: 30 seconds. However, the headlights for the bus on right-hand image appear to “beam” forward. This is because the bus was stationary for the first 25 seconds before it began to move in the last five seconds. The brightness of the headlights were captured, but the bus’ movement isn’t captured because it doesn’t emit enough light itself (other than its headlights) to affect the longer-term imprint that already took place. A shorter exposure might not have provided enough time to imprint the stationary bus, and would have also allowed the brief time it was moving to have a more pronounced imprint. To successfully capture this effect, experimentation is critical. (It took about an hour to experiment with this—mostly involving having to wait for another bus to come by.)
A favorite subject among amateurs is fireworks. While beautiful, they can be highly unpredictable, so again, prepare to shoot many frames with more bad pictures than good ones. The main problem is figuring out what exposure to use. If it’s too long, the fireworks themselves overexpose, and if it’s too short, all you get is fireworks, and no background. The only solution to this is shoot for the background—that is, expose as if it’s a nite shot—and try to time your shutter releases so that the fireworks are either at the beginning, or the very end of the exposure. You’ll have to shoot at least one picture of the scene without any fireworks, just to
gauge what your base-line “nite” exposure is. Once you have that, you can time the fireworks accordingly. This way, the basic scene will come out right, and the amount of light from the burst won’t be over-exposed. You want at least a second of it to get the “motion” of the sparks, or the photo probably won’t come out pleasing. Again, experiment to taste.
Clearly, it’s a lottery game to determine when the operator is going to let off the next one, and it’s not even worth shooting when he lets them off back to back. Except for those situations, I’ll shoot every moment of a one hour fireworks display and be lucky if I come up with five good shots. And if there’s a strong wind, forget it. Similarly, the smoke can become a visual eyesore if there isn’t enough circulation to cycle it out during the performance.
I always try to compose fireworks to have some sort of foreground. As you know, fireworks involve bursts, flashes, and streaks, which are all over the map for making good exposures. Getting an “even” look involves timing. And that is governed by your noticing how the fireworks are spaced apart from one another.
Shooting During the Day
The challenge for obtaining long exposures in the daytime is how to reduce the amount of bright daylight to allow for a longer exposure. Stopping down your aperture won’t be enough for these, because you need to block even more light. The solution is to use a neutral density filter. These filters are tinted with a “neutral” color, serving no other purpose than to reduce the total amount of light into the camera. ND Filters come in many configurations, from one stop of light, up to thirteen stops, where each “stop” doubles the amount of time of your exposure because it blocks twice as much light as the previous stop. So, a picture that would normally taken at f16 @ 1/30 second can turn into a 30-second exposure with a 10-stop ND filter. People have been known to photograph the sun traveling across the sky all day using two 13-stop ND filters stacked on top of each other.
I usually carry with me a 5-stop and a 10-stop ND filter. And that’s where the fun begins for things like waterfalls or fog, to name two examples. Fog is rarely motionless, so it is often a great subject for extended exposures because its movement often appears as “flowing cream” when low to the ground. (You tend not to get this effect if the fog is hovering; this type of photo is best shot when you’re away from the fog.)
Flowing water has a similar effect as fog, and it’s much easier to find. Whether a river, or crashing waves, any type of liquid movement is a good candidate for longer exposures.
The yawn reflex is often described as contagious: if one person yawns, this may cause another person to “sympathetically” yawn. Observing another person’s yawning face (especially his/her eyes), even reading, or thinking about yawning, can cause a person to yawn. The proximate cause for contagious yawning may lie with mirror neurons, i.e., neurons in the frontal cortex of certain vertebrates, which upon being exposed to a stimulus from conspecific (same species) and occasionally interspecific organisms, activates the same regions in the brain. Mirror neurons have been proposed as a driving force for imitation which lies at the root of much human learning, e.g., language acquisition. Yawning may be an offshoot of the same imitative impulse. A 2007 study found that children with autism spectrum disorder do not increase their yawning frequency after seeing videos of other people yawning, in contrast to typically developing children. This supports the claim that contagious yawning is based on the capacity for empathy.