Friday, March 22, 2019

Beautiful Photography of Italy – Cinqueterre to Pisa Tower

Beautiful Photography of Italy – Cinqueterre to Pisa Tower


The Cinque Terre is part of coast on the Italian Riviera. This area is really stony and buildings are built on it. You can really feel a touch of the sea. Night panorama is really impressive. There are many wonderful places and monuments in Italy. The Pisa Tower is one of famous monuments. It is located in the Italian town of Pisa, its height is 55.86 metres (183.27 feet) from the ground on the low side and 56.67 metres (185.93 feet) on the high side. A must see for every visitors is of course the Venice. Venice is famous for its gondolas.

cinqueterre pisa tower italy Beautiful Photography of Italy   Cinqueterre to Pisa Tower

cinqueterre pisa tower italy1 Beautiful Photography of Italy   Cinqueterre to Pisa Tower

cinqueterre pisa tower italy2 Beautiful Photography of Italy   Cinqueterre to Pisa Tower

cinqueterre pisa tower italy3 Beautiful Photography of Italy   Cinqueterre to Pisa Tower

Tags: , , , , ,

Relevant Articles

Archives of the Vatican

Archives of the Vatican


vaticansecret7 Archives of the Vatican

You would think that the Vatican’s Secret Archives would be some dumb conspiracy theory. I mean, it sounds ridiculous. The Vatican’s Secret Archives. Let it roll off your tongue. Surely, we’re into serious conspiracy weirdness here.

Except, of course, that there really is such a thing. And it’s pretty much exactly what you think it is.

There are a lot of reasons for an organization like the Catholic Church to have Secret Archives. After all, they’ve been in the conspiracy business for millennia longer than Majestic-12. They’ve been in the disinformation business for about 18 times as long as Donald Rumsfeld has been alive. They were taking secret vows when the Masons were just a bunch of architects. And they have more to hide that Richard M. Nixon on his worst day.

The Catholic Church first officially started keeping a library around the fourth century. Formed at the height of the first great heresy craze, the contents of this library included a lot of attacks on heretical branches of Christianity and the documents and scriptures used by these heretical branches (which the Church fathers admitted to having read).

The entire contents of the pre-eighth century archives, presumably including all these fascinating heresies, mysteriously disappeared, according to the Vatican’s official account of the library’s history, “for reasons not entirely known.”

The library was strictly closed to the public until around the 15th century, when the church decided to open its contents for the masses. OK, not all of the contents. Starting in the fourth century, the Catholic Church, in a position of political power for the first time, had been ruthlessly suppressing what it saw as heresy:

“Theodosius is said to be the first (Roman emperor) who pronounced heresy a capital crime; this law was passed in 382 against the Encratites, the Saccophori, the Hydroparastatae, and the Manichaeans. Heretical teachers were forbidden to propagate their doctrines publicly or privately; to hold public disputations; to ordain bishops, presbyters, or any other clergy; to hold religious meetings; to build conventicles or to avail themselves of money bequeathed to them for that purpose. Slaves were allowed to inform against their heretical masters and to purchase their freedom by coming over to the Church. The children of heretical parents were denied their patrimony and inheritance unless they returned to the Catholic Church. The books of heretics were ordered to be burned.”

Well, most of the books. After all, you would have to be pretty stupid to destroy valuable intelligence on your most hated enemies (read the Catholic Encyclopedia’s entry on heresy for a sense of the magnitude of enmity we’re talking about here). Around the time the library first opened to the public, Pope Paul IV issued the “index of prohibited books.” Reading, possessing or distributing these books had a spiritual penalty of excommunication (i.e., condemnation to hell without appeal), and in Catholic countries, they often had civil penalties as well (of varying severity, depending on the nature of the books).

Ironically, the pope issued an order later that same year mitigating the penalties regarding violations of the Index’s non-reading list, but the order was conveniently “lost” until 1909. Whoops! Guess they should’ve invented the Dewey decimal system while they were opening the library. This minor paperwork snafu justified 400 years of suppression and censorship, and when the modification of the order was discovered, it was ignored in favor of 400 years precedent, until the church finally lightened the order (slightly) in 1966.

vaticansecret5 Archives of the Vatican

While all this sounds pretty revolting to the American mindset, the church officially condones censorship even today: “Censorship of books is a supervision of the press in order to prevent any abuse of it. In this sense, every lawful authority, whose duty it is to protect its subjects from the ravages of a pernicious press, has the right of exercising censorship of books.”

Starting in the third century, the Church had expressly ordered the destruction of heretical books, but their contents were clearly referenced by the main heresy-hunters of the day, such as Irenaeus, a Father of the Church who wrote extensively about the fallacies of heresy. His texts explicitly admit he had read some of the source materials, as well as showing a great familiarity with the various beliefs of the many different heretic sects in existence at the time. The church’s official history of the archives confirms it contained such materials as a resource for those designated to fight against heresy.

Thus, the existence of a secret archive became inevitable for an organization obsessed with information control. Whatever form this archive took, it indisputably dates back to the fourth century at the latest. According to the Vatican, the early secret archive contained mainly the names of believers and wealthy patrons of the church, but as noted above, it almost assuredly contained copies of heretical and banned works, information deemed too “dangerous” for the public.

As the centuries wore on, the list of banned and dangerous books grew and grew, thanks to repeated expansions of the enemies list and aggressive attempts to snuff out the list’s members. The Inquisitions rounded up hundreds of books on topics ranging from Protestantism to Witchcraft and ritual magic, to the libraries of groups like the Knights Templar and the Cathars.

The latter groups might have had some particularly explosive additions for the library. Modern Conspiracy theorists have speculated that the Templars and the Cathars could have been protecting secrets like the possibility that Jesus Christ didn’t die on the cross as advertised, and that there might be hard evidence to support that claim, not to mention descendents of the allegedly sexless messiah.

Pope Pius IV is credited with first officially designating the existence of something which would formally be called the “Secret Archive.” The actual building was completed early in the 17th century and remained an ironclad fortress of forbidden information until the end of the 19th century, when it was purportedly opened to select scholars.

A heavily edited index of the Archives contents was published, and a large set of rules were developed regarding who got access to what. An even more secret archive known as the “Apostolic Penitentiary” exists, containing papal documents and canon law, and a lot of other stuff which is super-classified. Absolutely no one is allowed access.

As the 20th century dawned, the increasingly free flow of information around the world (and the decreasing political power of the Catholic Church) made it more and more difficult for the Vatican to effectively control what people were reading.

Archaeological discoveries of ancient Gnostic texts spilled the beans on the original heretics, and a vast surge of interest in all things magical and occult just made things worse. It’s difficult to justify banning access to the rituals of witchcraft, just for instance, when every major bookseller in American carries three or four flavors of “Teen Witch Spell Kits.”

vaticansecret3 Archives of the Vatican

Another predictable problem arose when the Vatican admitted the secret archives existed. People very naturally began guessing what might be in there, sometimes very accurately.

Among the more recent good guesses were the contents of the Third Secret of Fatima, an allegedly devastating prophecy of doom delivered by the Virgin Mary in a series of appearances to illiterate peasant children which was allegedly revealed by the Church in 2000. Under intense pressure, the Church released a series of 20th century documents from the secret archives relating to papal complicity in the rise of the Nazis in Germany.

In addition to Nazi collaboration, the archives are generally thought to contain rather a lot of information about the Catholic Church’s wrongdoings, such as the current scandal on priestly pedophilia. In fact, the archives contain miles of allegations concerning the sexual kinks and other vices enjoyed by priests and bishops, dating back to at least the 14th century, and possibly even earlier.

Realizing the danger of such disclosures, the Vatican structured access to the archives to allow a minimum of accidental disclosures and a maximum of secrecy. The most obvious way to do this is also the most effective. It’s strictly prohibited to go browsing the shelves in the Vatican’s secret archives. It’s unclear whether even the archive’s librarians are allowed to do so.

Scholars wishing to review information in the archives have to arrive at the gate knowing exactly what documents they want, which is a pretty crappy way to encourage scholarship but a great way to make sure no one stumbles onto the Explicit Erotic Diaries of Jesus and Mary. Scholars also have to present their research requests in writing in advance, allowing the librarians ample time to decide between their three options in responding — 1) bring out the requested document, 2) claim the document doesn’t exist, or 3) admit the document exists but refuse to give the scholar access.

So if you were hoping poke around the archives looking for evidence that Jesus was an extraterrestrial, just forget it. You have a better chance of getting a guided tour of Area 51 than getting a glimpse of the Sacred Alien Rectal Probing Device.

Tags: , , , , ,

Relevant Articles

Verona, city of love

Verona, city of love


The Italian town of Verona is one of the most aristocratic, beautiful, full with interesting sight-seeings towns in Europe. Verona, this splendid city: monumental, elegant and romantic attracts many visitors from all over the world every day. The River Adige runs through it at a leisure pace, creating two great loops which reflect the city`s magnificent monuments and seem to embrace and jealously guard its extraordinary historical,cultural and artistic heritage.

Because of its geographical position Verona is often called “the gateway of Italy”. The town is beautiful with its monuments, squares, churches and all nice places that present the history and art through the centuries.

The Roman city, the medieval city and the city of the Della Scala family-these are the periods which marked the main stages of its urban development-are perfectly

verona1 Verona, city of love

blended together because they exist side by side in complete harmony and together create an historic center of enormous distinction.

There are monuments whose ruins make present-day Verona one of the richest cities in Italy as regards vestiges of the past. It is sufficient to cite the example of the splendid and famous Arena of Verona, the ancient Amphitheater of the Imperial age. The gates, the bridges, the arches are very important for the tourists. When we talk about the town of Verona everybody mentions Arena di Verona and the Romeo and Juliet`s love story. It is actually true that the town is world famous with both of them but the town has many other places which are interesting for you during your stay here.

The fame of Verona is closely linked to the majestic Arena where every year important cultural events take place, the most prestigious being the opera season, which finds, in the Roman Amphitheater, an outstanding natural backdrop and a setting which proves particularly suitable for the performance of works with large sets. Many people come here to take part in these events.

The city is known throughout the world as the setting for the star-crossed love affair of Romeo and Juliet the characters in Shakespeare`s tragedy “Romeo and Juliet”. The memory and the image of the balcony onto which Juliet stepped out to talk to her beloved Romeo, the tomb on which their bittersweet affair was finally burnt out, the tormenting reminder of a beautiful yet tragic love story will linger on above all. A story and a tradition which have given Verona the name “city of love”.

One of the most beautiful gardens in Italy is Guisti Garden which is harmoniously designed. It has a square plan subdivided into two parts: the lower one takes the form of a typical Italian garden in which, amidst the verdant hedges and the brilliant colors of the flowers, statues and fountains alternate. The upper part is characterized by rows of cypresses and other trees. The garden also has a maze whose paths are lined by box hedges. The architecture of the Palazzo del Giardino Giusti is in the classical style.

The Palazzo Pompei building has a monumental appearance: wide arched windows on the ground floor and an airy open gallery on the upper floor. It houses the Natural Science Museum which has a vast record of prehistoric flora and fauna as well as a remarkable collection of minerals and fossils.

verona2 Verona, city of love

If you are keen on art, it is good for you to visit the Castelvecchio Municipal Museum which houses one of the most interesting collections of Italian and European art. The museum includes various sectors: sculpture,  paintings, antique weapons, ceramics, goldsmith`s work and others. There are many beautiful paintings in the museum:Madonna of the Quail by Pisanello. Nativity with Saint Jerome and Saint John the Baptist by Liberale da Verona. Madonna of the Passion by Carlo Crivelli and others.

The painting Madonna of the Rosary by Stefano da Verona is very beautiful. It depicts the Madonna and Child framed by exquisitely fashioned rose shoots amidst which bands of adoring Angels can also be glimpsed.

Not far from the Museum is the Castelvecchio Bridge, impressive and spectacular made in the form of a quadrangular tower. Rebuilt after the Second World War it gives the opportunity to have a panoramic view of the River Adige.

Tags: , , , , ,

Relevant Articles

Venice, city of Gondolas

Venice, city of Gondolas


Venice, better known as the city of gondolas and canals, is located in the east of Northern Italy. The city consists of 118 small islands and 170 canals. Islands are linked to each other by 400 bridges. In this structure, it differs from all other cities around the globe. Due to this, public transportation is provided by gondolas which are peculiar to Venice. Most of the time, you can see nobody walking on the foot and driving cars.

venecia1 Venice, city of Gondolas

Venice is also known as the capital of romance. Many people dream of a wedding party or honeymoon in Venice owing to its marvellous nature and serenity. However, in summer, serenity may be broken down with the sings of gondoliers. Most people prefer to listen those songs while visiting city. However, hiring a gondola may be expensive for middle classes.

Venice has been favourite places of visitors for more than centuries. Not only its nature but also its history attracts many tourists. Its history dates back to Middle ages when sailor Venetians dominate the seas and battled against brutal pirates.

During the centuries, Venice has been also the capital of trading. Venetians improved the number systematic and trading arithmetic after they had learnt the fundementals of them by Arabians and Turks.

Even though the city has a beautiful nature, the population decreased drastically from 300 thousands to 72 thousands since the best bread and butter oppurtunity is tourism for many. The rate of youngs in overall population is very low. However, city is visited by average 70 thousands of tourists daily in summer season.

History and usage

The gondola is propelled by an oarsman (the gondolier) who stands facing the bow and rows with a forward stroke, followed by a compensating backward stroke. Contrary to popular belief the gondola is never poled like a punt as the waters of Venice are too deep. Until about two hundred years ago, gondolas often were fitted with a “felze,” a small open cabin, to protect the passengers from sun or rain. A sumptuary law of Venice required that gondolas should be painted black, and they are customarily so painted now.

It is estimated that there were several thousand gondolas during the 18th century. There are a several hundred today, most of which are for hire by tourists, while a few are in private ownership and use.

The construction of the gondola continued to evolve until the mid-20th century, when the city government prohibited any further modifications. The oar or rèmo is held in an oar lock known as a fòrcola. The forcola is of a complicated shape, allowing several positions of the oar for slow forward rowing, powerful forward rowing, turning, slowing down, rowing backwards, and stopping. The ornament on the front of the boat is called the fèrro (meaning iron) and can be made from brass, stainless steel, or aluminium. It serves as decoration and as counterweight for the gondolier standing near the stern.
Gondolas parking
Gondola passing under a bridge

Gondolas are hand made using 8 different types of wood (fir, oak, cherry, walnut, elm, mahogany, larch and lime) and are composed of 280 pieces. The oars are made of beech wood. The left side of the gondola is made longer than the right side. This asymmetry causes the gondola to resist the tendency to turn toward the left at the forward stroke.

Tags: , , , ,

Relevant Articles