Wednesday, April 24, 2019




Snake Skeletons

Snake Skeletons

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The precaudal vertebrae have a more or less high neural spine which, as a rare exception, may be expanded and plate-like above, and short or moderately long transverse processes to which the ribs are attached by a single facet. The centra of the anterior vertebrae emit more or less developed descending processes, or haemapophyses, which are sometimes continued throughout, as in Tropidonotus, Vipera, and Ancistrodon, among European genera.

snake skeletons1 Snake Skeletons

snake skeletons2 Snake Skeletons

In the caudal region, elongate transverse processes take the place of ribs, and the haemapophyses are paired, one on each side of the haemal canal. In the Rattlesnakes the seven or eight last vertebrae are enlarged and fused into one.

snake skeletons3 Snake Skeletons

snake skeletons4 Snake Skeletons

The typical Ophidian skull is characterized by a solidly ossified brain-case, with the distinct frontals and the united parietals extending downwards to the basisphenoid, which is large and produced forward into a rostrum extending to the ethmoidal region. The nasal region is less completely ossified, and the paired nasals are often attached only at their base. The occipital condyle is either trilobate and formed by the basioccipital and the exoccipitals, or a simple knob formed by the basioccipital; the supraoccipital is excluded from the foramen magnum. The basioccipital may bear a strong, curved ventral process or hypapophysis.

snake skeletons5 Snake Skeletons

snake skeletons6 Snake Skeletons

snake skeletons7 Snake Skeletons

The vertebral column consists of an atlas without ribs; numerous precaudal vertebrae, all of which, except the first or first three, bear long, movable, curved ribs with a small posterior tubercle at the base, the last of these ribs sometimes forked; two to ten so-called lumbar vertebrae without ribs, but with bifurcate transverse processes enclosing the lymphatic vessels; and a number of ribless caudal vertebrae with simple transverse processes. When bifid, the ribs or transverse processes have the branches regularly superposed.

snake skeletons8 Snake Skeletons

snake skeletons9 Snake Skeletons

snake skeletons10 Snake Skeletons

The centra have the usual cup-and-ball articulation, with the nearly hemispherical or transversely elliptic condyle at the back, whilst the neural arch is provided with additional articular surfaces in the form of pre- and post-zygapophyses, broad, flattened, and overlapping, and of a pair of anterior wedge-shaped processes called zygosphene, fitting into a pair of corresponding concavities, zygantrum, just below the base of the neural spine. Thus the vertebrae of snakes articulate with each other by eight joints in addition to the cup-and-ball on the centrum, and interlock by parts reciprocally receiving and entering one another, like the joints called “tenon-and-mortice” in carpentry.

snake skeletons11 Snake Skeletons

snake skeletons12 Snake Skeletons

The prefrontal bone is situated, on each side, between the frontal and the maxillary, and may or may not be in contact with the nasal. The postfrontal, usually present, borders the orbit behind, rarely also above, and in the Pythons a supraorbital is intercalated between it and the prefrontal. The premaxillary is single and small, and as a rule connected with the maxillary only by ligament. The paired vomer is narrow.

snake skeletons13 Snake Skeletons

The palatine and pterygoid are elongate and parallel to the axis of the skull, the latter diverging behind and extending to the quadrate or to the articular extremity of the mandible; the pterygoid is connected with the maxillary by the ectopterygoid or transverse bone, which may be very elongate, and the maxillary often emits a process towards the palatine, the latter bone being usually produced inwards and upwards towards the anterior extremity of the basisphenoid. The quadrate is usually large and elongate, and attached to the cranium through the supratemporal. In rare cases the transverse bone is forked, and articulates with two branches of the maxilla.

snake skeletons14 Snake Skeletons

snake skeletons15 Snake Skeletons



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10 Most Scenic National Parks in the United States

10 Most Scenic National Parks in the United States

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From deep canyons and vast deserts to crystal exotic bays and dazzling glaciers, North America’s National Parks feature world’s most scenic natural beauties. The U.S. is home to almost 400 natural parks that preserve our planet’s most exceptional and diverse formations and sites. In this beauty contest of 10 most scenic national parks the winners do not differ much from the defeated.

10. Death Valley, California, Nevada.

Death Valley National Park is the hottest and the driest spot in the United States. It is a place where the record-breaking temperature of 134 °F (56.7 °C) hit on 10 July 1913. It was the hottest day ever reported in the country. Moreover, it is also the lowest place in North America – 282 feet (86 m) below sea level (at Badwater).

Rock formations, salt pans, desert and “skeletonized” ranges (mountains with very little soil on them) are the main features of the park’s dramatic landscape.

1 10 Most Scenic National Parks in the United States

2 10 Most Scenic National Parks in the United States
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Sheep with LED diodes

Sheep with LED diodes

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Sheep are incredibly intelligent animals. It’s amazing the way they control the dogs and humans to put lights on them and then have them both play with them all day to entertain them.



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Bear is resting on the sand

Bear is resting on the sand

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Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds being their closest living relatives. Although there are only eight living species of bear, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and partially in the Southern Hemisphere. That which pertains to bears is called ursine. Bears are found in the continents of North America, South America, Europe, and Asia.

Common characteristics of modern bears include a large body with stocky legs, a long snout, shaggy hair, plantigrade paws with five nonretractile claws, and a short tail. While the polar bear is mostly carnivorous and the giant panda feeds almost entirely on bamboo, the remaining six species are omnivorous, with largely varied diets including both plants and animals.

This bear is lying in the sand and enjoying in the Sun rays.. And when he saw a reporter, he wave him… :)

1 Bear is resting on the sand

2 Bear is resting on the sand

3 Bear is resting on the sand

4 Bear is resting on the sand

5 Bear is resting on the sand



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Cute animals

Cute animals

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Animals can always make us fell happy… Because of that, people should take care of them. This gallery contains funny pictures of the animals.. Enjoy these pics, and be happy, because you live together with those animals… Maybe you’ll buy a pet after seeing these photos… :)

Animals in action2 Cute animals Read more



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Crazy animals

Crazy animals

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Pink nose and black eyes: perfect combination to scare you a lot. Eyes convergence somewhere on your forehead, nails ready to scratch this boy’s ears, how can’t you love it :-)

Opossum as a food

The opossum was once a favorite game animal in the United States, and in particular the southern regions which have a large body of recipes and folklore relating to the opossum. Opossum was once widely consumed in the United States where available as evidenced by recipes available online and in books such as older editions of The Joy of Cooking. In Dominica and Trinidad opossum or “manicou” is popular and can only be hunted during certain times of the year due to over-hunting; the meat is traditionally prepared by smoking then stewing. The meat is light and fine grained, but the musk glands must be removed as part of preparation. The meat can be used in place of rabbit and chicken in recipes. The cousin of the opossum, the possum, found in Australia (and introduced to New Zealand) is consumed in a similar manner. Read more



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